What Will Construction Look Like in a Circular City?

In the 10th episode of the Prefecture Go Podcast, we dive into the topic of construction in the circular city. After discussing network servers, power grids, agriculture, water, transportation, and medical, it makes sense to follow with construction, which will tie them all together and make them a reality. How will we build the agricultural systems, modes of transportation, and other technology we have discussed in previous podcasts?

How will we build our circular city?  What construction styles, techniques, and architecture will be used?

The Monolithic Dome

Monolithic domes are versatile, dome-shaped structures built with reinforced-steel concrete and polyurethane foam insulation. These extremely durable structures are known for surviving severe natural disasters like hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, fires, and more. The domes are eco-friendly and energy efficient as they use 50% less energy for heating and cooling compared to conventional structures.

In addition, these monolithic domes can fill a variety of architectural needs from residential homes to commercial buildings. The major advantages of these structures within a circular city would be their low energy consumption, durability, disaster resistance, and low maintenance. Monolithic domes can also perform well in just about any climate and landscape. Are there any disadvantages you can see?

3-D Printing

A 3-D printer would be able to build the walls and foundation of a house in a few days rather than the weeks and months it would take to build manually. It would create and print the materials off-site and then assemble the house on-site at a later date. 3-D printing not only dramatically speeds up the construction of a house, but it limits construction waste, reduces scraps, and reduces the costs associated with the transport of materials. 3-D printers could also be developed to make houses out of sustainable, renewable materials.

Prefabricated Construction

Prefabricated construction is the process of building construction components (walls, roof, floor) for residential or commercial projects off-site instead of on-site. Making the building materials, putting them together in another location, and then transporting them to the final site have many advantages. Prefabricated construction increases safety with a controlled off-site environment, reduces site disruption, reduces material wastes, and lessens disturbances such as water, air, or noise pollution. Quick, cost-effective, and eco-friendly—prefabricated construction is sure to be common in a circular city.

What types of construction do you see in a circular city?

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Driving Toward the Future: What Will Autonomous Transportation Be Like in a Circular City?

In order to become to truly low-impact to the environment, our independent attitude toward travel will have to change. What does that mean exactly? Well, on average, we all want to own our own car and go where we want to go when we want to go. Our current individualistic culture supports this desire, while a circular city’s collectivism would not.

Transportation would become less about individual ownership and more about accessibility for all. For the health of the environment, it’s not feasible for every individual of the populous to own a car. Fully accessible public transport, on the other hand, would lower environmental impact, unclog roads, and overall improve the efficiency of travel for all.

In our fictional circular city, Prefecture imagines autonomous public transport taking form as driverless, color-coded pods that are well-attuned to each individual of the populous’ travel needs. The color-coded pods would provide visually recognizable signals to the entire populous. Red pods could signal emergency travel to a medical center, green pods could signal the delivery or transport of goods, blue pods could signal the transport of people, etc.

The pods that travel on electric grids controlled by KAILE would know people’s basic schedules and when they need to travel to work, scheduled activities, and more. KAILE would collect this data on each individual and input it. Presumably, there would also be options to request travel for when transportation is required unexpectedly like for medical emergencies or for spontaneous activities.

These autonomous pods work well for inner-city travel, but what happens when you want to travel outside of your city. Prefecture suggests drones that magnetize to the pods and can simply carry the pods over large distances of rough terrain. While flying cars are often the first thing that comes to mind when we think of the future, are they really necessary or sustainable? The drones could also function as security, perform surveillance, deliver packages, drop off first aid kits, water crops, and more.

When self-driving, autonomous vehicles are mentioned, many people express trepidation at their own loss of control, but perhaps that is just what we need. Over 90% of collisions on the road are caused by human error alone. Once the technology is tested and perfected, autonomous vehicles would dramatically reduce accidents and allow people to get more things accomplished while traveling.

However, one thing some people can’t quite resolve with autonomous vehicles is the loss of the driving experience itself. Would you miss the feeling of driving? Some say this desire to drive could be satisfied with virtual reality games that simulate driving, racing, or mudding without the associated risk. What do you think about this?

What questions or ideas do you have about futuristic transport? Is the desire to drive something that can be mimicked and replaced in the form of a game?

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Can We Sustainably Feed an Ever-Growing Population?

Agriculture is one of the most powerful tools we have to increase individual quality of living globally. The United States produces enough food domestically to technically be able to feed its entire population and then some. However, due to unequal food affordability, availability, and quality, many people still face food insecurity, poor diets, and hunger.

With approximately 7.5 billion people on the planet and the projected exponential growth of 10 billion people by 2050, food security is on everyone’s mind. Will the world be able to feed itself? How can we sustainably feed an exponentially growing population? Can we ditch traditional farming methods and still feed the world?

With increased commercial and residential buildings replacing agriculture space, the answer to feeding a growing population isn’t simply increasing farmland. In addition, current industrial agricultural practices that use pesticides and other harmful chemicals threaten both the health of people and the planet’s natural resources, such as clean water and soil. As a result, we are faced with two major problems: a lack of space and unsustainable approaches.

One of the solutions experts are exploring is farming without soil. Hydroponics, aeroponics, and aquaponics are three soilless farming methods in which farmers replace the need for soil with nutrient-rich water to support plant roots. Vertical farming incorporates these soilless solutions and grows crops stacked in layers to maximize a smaller space with higher yields.

The ability to harvest higher yields using less space and resources is inherently advantageous to growing populations. In addition, these alternative farming methods would reduce toxic runoff, decrease water pollution, allow hyper-local food systems, and lower food transportation costs. Communities would be able to access fresher foods, healthier foods, and higher quality foods.

However, for every advantage, there are of course disadvantages. Our current farmers are debt-ridden from investing in expensive agricultural equipment, such as combines, that cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Consequently, the thought of investing in even more expensive technology for the sake of sustainability isn’t feasible to many farmers at this time, who are still trying to find ways to afford and pay for traditional equipment.

In addition, not everything can be grown hydroponically. Large root vegetables like potatoes, carrots, onions, or turnips are not optimal in hydroponic environments because their root systems take up too much space. As a result, a mixture of traditional soil farming and soilless farming would be needed to grow a variety of vegetables and fruits. Likewise, as new technology for hydroponics, aeroponics, or aquaponics is implemented, there are always technological mistakes and growing pains that could cause whole crops to be lost.

The solution for today won’t always be the solution for tomorrow. Though our current agricultural practices do satisfy our food needs, they may not always in the decades to come.

What are your thoughts on alternative farming methods like hydroponics? What pros and cons do you see for these new farming methods? Do have any sustainable solutions or ideas?

We want to know your thoughts! Join the conversation and drop a comment below!

Powering a Circular City

Energy is what keeps the world turning round— the lifeblood that powers our daily living. This will hold true in circular cities as well, especially with the many different kinds of technology and artificial intelligence that will need to be powered 24/7. The question is: how would power change in a circular city, both in how it is generated and in how it is received?

Generating Power: Energy Solutions

At its core, the circular city seeks to improve its populous’ health, enhance the environment’s livability, preserve nature, and create less negative impacts to nature and its inhabitants. It will seek power sources that are reliable, renewable, clean, and cause minimal negative impact to the environment. As the search for sustainable and renewable energy alternatives continues, it’s important to bear in mind that every technology we create has an impact of some kind.

Solar: Solar power uses cells to convert sunlight into electricity. This clean, renewable energy is silent, available worldwide, and doesn’t pollute the water, air, or soil. However, solar panels require high upfront costs, expensive and rare materials, require a lot of land space, can cause glare, and are completely dependent on the sun shining.

Wind: Wind turbines convert the blowing wind into electricity. Wind energy is clean, renewable, and doesn’t pollute the air, soil, or water. It is generally low maintenance and inexpensive to build. However, the turbines can be noisy, visually displeasing, require lots of land, harm and kill wildlife like bats and birds, and is reliant upon the wind blowing.

Geothermal: Geothermal power uses heat from deep inside the earth to generate electricity. Geothermal is a renewable energy source that is generally reliable and predictable. It produces smaller amounts of carbon emissions and sulfur than traditional energy methods. However, there are expensive upfront costs, has the potential to cause earthquakes, and is only sustainable if managed properly.

Hydroelectric: Hydroelectric power derives energy from moving water. Essentially, flowing water turns turbines and creates electricity. It is a source of clean, renewable energy, but it is restricted to where water reservoirs are available. However, building dams disturbs natural habitats and force relocations for both people and animals.

There are pros and cons to every energy source. What do you think would be the best solution?

Receiving Power: How will individuals in the populous “pay” for power?

The question that naturally follows is: how will people receive power? In today’s world, there is a clear ownership of energy, and we pay to use power. Do you think people should pay for electricity in a circular city?

In a circular city model, each individual in the populous is expected to contribute their fair share, share their skills, and then reap the rewards of shared community resources. In order to provide equal access to these resources, circular cities become resource-based economies, meaning the planet’s resources are common heritage to all—no one privately owns the natural resources like power, but every human deserves equal access to them without the expectation of monetary payment. Housing, transportation, renewable energy sources, clean water, and organic food would be available to all in this community-based living structure.

Do you see the power grid as a shared community resource? How do you see the future of energy and power without a monetized government system?


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The Future of Network Data Servers

Network data centers are at the center of modern technology, and they will play a critical role in expanding the capabilities of technology for future enterprises, including in the circular city.

Data centers and servers are both behind-the-scenes technology we often don’t think about. These network data servers are what compile all the data and information we interact with on websites or apps, and they have improved the functionality of data as a whole.  The servers act as the engine of data centers, collecting and sending information over a network. We usually don’t stop to think: where is this data coming from to make this work?

Traditional data centers are what we commonly picture as large rooms stacked with computers.  These traditional centers relied on hardware and physical space. As a result, the amount of data that could be stored relied on space and storage couldn’t be expanded beyond the physical confines of a space. Then came virtualized data centers with cloud computing technology. As a result, one physical server could host any number of virtual servers. Network data servers and other technologies are continuing to advance. What do their capabilities have in store for the future?

Typically in the center of circular cities, there is dome-shaped data center that is a hub for collecting, storing, and processing data. AI like KAILE (Kinesthetic Artificial Intelligent Learning Environment) will need an immense amount of data storage to carry out calculations and solve problems using algorithms.

KAILE will take information from the circular city’s populous, input the data in its system, and create a series of outputs. Network servers will allow AI technology like KAILE to constantly calculate and output suggestions. Digital technologies and advanced servers like the Internet of Things (IoT) will allow KAILE to track the journey of products, materials, and object, collect resulting data, and spark new ideas for improvements. These digital landscapes and servers that would support super AI systems like KAILE would offer circular economies the opportunity to strengthen the connectivity between data, physical materials, and people.

Will these network servers in conjunction with AI like KAILE maximize the freedom of action for the community? AI technology like KAILE is not meant to be controlling or governing, and its calculated suggestions are meant to just that: suggestions, not orders. The community would always have the choice to implement any changes. This type of AI and advanced network data servers are meant to increase the wealth of information, opportunities, and quality of living for the community.

What are your thoughts on AI technology like KAILE?  What possibilities does this type of technology offer? Do you think a symbiotic relationship with AI is plausible?

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How Could Advanced Technology Change Our Work and Our Lives?

“AI should maximize the freedom of action for humans.”

This popular quote from Elon Musk sounds great, but what does it mean? Essentially, it means that the greatest thing humans can invent for themselves is increased freedom. Technology should maximize our benefits, not detract from them.

For example, as technology advances, it is more likely that robots, software, or sensors will be able to automate laborious, tedious work for us. Automating manual labor such as warehouse work, agricultural work, assembly line work, or cash register positions would increase the freedom of choice for workers.

No longer would people have to spend arduous hours lifting packages or performing repetitive tasks. Instead, they would have the opportunity to fill more creative positions or work in technical fields created because of this technology, such as data analysts or software developers. As a result, this could dramatically improve human health, quality of life, and human work-life balance for many.

Without a doubt, robotics and machine learning technologies will continue to reduce human workloads inside and outside factories in assembly and packaging tasks all the way to customer service. This inevitably stokes the fear that robots will steal our jobs. But we may also see the rise of humans working alongside robots rather than being fully replaced be them.

In addition to job fears, there are the privacy concerns of being “watched” and there is unease about the erosion of free will. What are your thoughts? How do you feel about this? Are we so blindsided by worry that we are unable to see the possibilities that this technology could offer us? How do you think automation could change the average person’s life?

Our fear and trepidation often casts advanced technology as inherently sinister, but there is plenty of technology out there doing the exact opposite by keeping us safe and improving our quality of living. For example, the Internet of Things (IoT) has been able to leverage digital landscapes for improved safety, operations, and efficiency.

These diagnostic tools have monitored and gathered data from everyday appliances like refrigerators or smartwatches to aircraft engines to supervise safety and maintenance. Now, instead of merely estimating when an airplane engine is due for maintenance, IoT has allowed us to know precisely when the engine is due for care or repairs. In instances such as these, technology provides the data that allows us to reduce errors, increase safety, and overall optimize processes.

Robotics, machine learning, IoT, and other advanced technology offer us major possibilities to live more efficient, safe lives, reduce hard labor, and improve our living conditions. What challenges and opportunities do you foresee? Do you think these advanced technologies will increase our freedom?

What problems do you want to solve with technology? What do you want to create? How can we balance caution and concern with innovation?

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Modern Demands: How Do Teaching Styles Need to Change?

The textbook reading assignment, teacher-student lectures, and hand-written notes are quickly becoming a thing of the past in modern classrooms. These traditional teaching and learning methods are not working for a majority of students in the twenty-first century. What’s changed?

Rapid technological changes over generations have presented new challenges and demands in our society, workforce, and, consequently, our education system. Analytical thinking, innovation, creative problem-solving, and technological proficiency are now skills that are needed in our future workforce. Likewise, students who have grown up in a technological landscape now crave those visual, auditory, and sensory experiences in their learning styles.

It’s becoming increasingly apparent to many that our current “one shoe fits all” teaching styles are outdated. Teachers need to be able to adapt and accommodate diverse learning styles, and students too will need to have more control over their personal learning journey.

Are we setting our future workforce up for failure if teaching styles don’t change? What are skill sets our students need to learn in the classroom now to prepare to be productive members of society later?

One of the most difficult problems faced in today’s education system is teaching effectiveness. Students are absorbing large amounts of surface-level information—that is often quickly disposed of— without interacting with it in a useful way. Differentiated teaching styles as well as the flexibility to adapt are both needed in modern educators.

VARK is an acronym that stands for Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic sensory modes of learning. The VARK model suggests these are the four main types of learners. Students may feel drawn to one particular learning style or enjoy a mix. Every student has a unique, personally-preferred learning style.

Individualizing learning plans for students allows each student to learn and engage with the content in a way that is most beneficial to them. Personalized learning in the classroom tailors itself to each student’s individual needs, strengths, and interests in order for that student to learn at a deeper level.

How can teachers adapt to these different learning styles in the classroom? How can VARK learning styles be incorporated to change different teaching styles? What challenges or obstacles do you foresee?

The goal of transmitting knowledge without rote memorization being the sole focus has started to become more accepted and common. In addition, experts in the education field are asking, “What are we testing for?” Students at all levels are still heavily focused on end results—their score on the test, their rank in the class, or their final grade in the class. As we have seen with many entrepreneurs and innovators, test results do not define you.

Are exams really doing anything beneficial in preparing future members of society? What are your thoughts on the future of student testing? Will it become obsolete or remain in curriculum?

Learning environments focused on experiential learning rather than final test scores encourage students to take that knowledge, interact with it, and think critically about it. Students are becoming partners or “co-creators” of their learning journey.

They are able to partake in experiences that allow collaboration, communication, and teamwork on projects that allow the application of knowledge to real-life scenarios. These learning environments encourage students to be innovative, take risks, and simulate real-life problem-solving. Those in the education field hope this type of learning will help students find their passions, find potential career paths, and learn the ability to persevere and find solutions.

Many experts are pushing for learning to be more focused on experience and collaboration.

What do you think of this new learning environment? What obstacles do you think need to be overcome in order to transition to this type of education system?

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Why Storytelling is Important in Building a Brand

Storytelling has been an innate part of the human experience since the beginning of time. Stories have long captivated us and left long-lasting impressions. Communication and stories are a basic part of who we—humans are driven to tell stories and to listen to them. It makes all the more sense that storytelling has evolved tremendously over time and still persists today not only for entertainment purposes but also in business marketing and brand building.

At its core, a brand is essentially the story of a business. Storytelling is a timeless way to emotionally engage audiences, create personal connections, and to overall expand engagement. Unlike any other marketing technique, storytelling invokes the power of human emotion and connection, creating a deep sense of trust and shared experience.

While many businesses use storytelling to build their brands, the opposite can true as well: many stories have unintentionally become multi-million dollar brands with cult followings. Blockbuster movies, books, video games, and TV shows have essentially created entire cultures in which loyal fan bases allow the world of the story to live on.

How can simple stories become powerful platforms to launch mega-brands?

Authenticity and Emotional Connections

Nothing connects a business to their audience better than stories. Storytelling innately allows people to connect on a deeper level because it focuses on shared human experience. When people see authentic characters and real-life conflict—even in fantasy settings—it is difficult not to form a personal connection. Characters and conflict an audience can truly relate to create lasting emotional connections, sometimes as deep as real-life relationships. This type of storytelling allows brands to mean something more to the audience beyond what they are selling, essentially humanizing the brand.

Trust and Loyalty

Brands simply cannot grow without trust or loyalty. If an audience finds the characters, conflict, or resolutions to be disingenuous, chances are they will remember your brand but not for the right reasons. If the audience finds the people and struggles in your story to be authentic and perhaps even reflective of their own experience, they will immediately feel a deep personal connection to the brand. If an audience can rely on a brand for genuine portrayals of the human experience, they feel they can trust their entire brand. Building this trust and credibility through accurate storytelling is the beginning of building enduring loyalty and strong customer or fan bases that will last a lifetime.

Long-Lasting Relationships and Endless Engagement

Great stories create deep bonds between the characters and the audience, ones people often visit again and again. The audience’s feeling that they have been through the same struggles allows the story resonate deeply with them. Even when a story ends, it still lives on through the audience. Stories are a timeless medium that allow endless engagement and interaction. We see this continually in our current culture in cosplaying, conventions, fanfiction, and more. The ability for the audience to place themselves within the story is what truly can make a story and brand last forever.

Where is Artificial Intelligence Today and Where is it Going?

What is AI?

Artificial Intelligence, or AI, is a broad term used to describe a machine’s ability to replicate human intelligence. While human and animal intelligence is considered “natural,” computer intelligence is “artificially” created through a series of specially designed algorithms. Actions like learning, reasoning, logic, perception, or creativity—once thought to be exclusive to humans— are now being simulated by technology and used in nearly every industry.

The goal of AI is to mimic human thinking in order to complete both simple and complex tasks. Our current AI is “narrow” and “noncognizant,” meaning that the machines perform objective tasks using data. There is no conscious thinking on the machines’ parts, and they are not driven by emotion like humans. Current narrow AI operates within its pre-determined range of functions.

Where is AI used today?

The future is now—there’s virtually no industry AI hasn’t already affected and changed. Whether we realize it or not, AI is all around us, and it is increasingly playing a more active role in our lives.

When people hear Artificial Intelligence, they almost always think of robots. That’s because mainstream media and big-budget movies tell us thrilling tales of human-like machines slowly becoming self-aware and wrecking havoc. Though this narrative of murderous machines is certainly an entertaining plot line in movies and books, experts don’t expect robotic domination to be a reality.

We use voice-powered assistants like Apple’s Siri, Amazon’s Alexa, or Microsoft’s Cortana without blinking an eye. Asking Siri a question, telling Alexa to add milk to your grocery list, or using a customer service live chat bot is not otherworldly technology to us, but rather commonplace in our everyday lives. This type of narrow, data-based AI has seamlessly integrated itself into the human experience.

AI takes the burden of repetitive action and instant response away from humans, increasing efficiency, performance, and safety. In manufacturing facilities, machines are replacing the tedious tasks on assembly lines. As a result, it is increasingly normal to see humans working alongside machines in manufacturing facilities. The machine’s sensors keep equipment running smoothly, increasing efficiency and productivity while ensuring safety standards are still met.

In the education field, AI has saved teachers tons of time through automated document reading, automated grading, and automated plagiarism checking. Freed from these time-consuming and repetitive tasks, educators now have more time to focus on lesson planning or educational projects that would benefit students.

AI also creates more precise analytics and data, creating the potential to become powerful diagnostic tools. For example, the AI technology in today’s smart watches and fitness trackers gather important data points about the user’s health. These data points can then be analyzed at doctor appointments to gauge the individual’s health.

Perhaps one of the most exciting examples of AI technology in the works is the self-driving car. Equipped with myriads of sensors that capture thousands of data points every millisecond—such as speed, road conditions, and traffic—the autonomous car uses AI to interpret these data points and to act accordingly.

While people readily accept virtual assistants, live chat bots, and robotic manufacturing, many people shrink from the idea of self-driving cars and autonomous airplanes. The idea of glitches and problems in self-driving cars and planes is terrifying, even though humans are equally flawed and capable of creating disaster. There is an expectation ingrained into us that AI is flawless—however, it has flaws just like its creators. It simply must be improved and worked on over time.

Why do you think of the current AI in our society? Does this type of AI remove human control to the point of trepidation? What are your thoughts?

How will AI shape the future of industry?

Regardless of individual industries, AI is everywhere, and it will affect the way we do business across all sectors. It is already used in transportation, manufacturing, finance, healthcare, education, city planning, and much more.

Though media headlines often warn us that AI technology is stealing jobs, experts are optimistic and expect AI to be a vehicle for job creation. Once skilled laborers are freed from repetitive and routine tasks that machines can do—such as, separating things into bins, picking fruit, washing dishes, answering calls—they can then work in new areas and fields that AI technology creates. However, experts do warn that it is essential to retrain and educate displaced workers in these new fields.

Does AI really improve our human experience overall? Or does it complicate it somehow? Is there such a thing as too much AI?

Looking to the future: where is AI going?

Though our current AI is non-cognizant—meaning machines draw conclusions based on inputted data or algorithms—the future does hold the possibility of cognizant AI. Our current AI may not seem narrow or weak, but it lacks human self-awareness, consciousness, and the ability to think for itself.

Machines can certainly process data much faster than we can, but they can’t think abstractly or make decisions informed by memory or experience. There is the possibility that this type of AI could arrive in the future.

What are your thoughts on the future of AI? Are you hopeful, concerned, or worried?

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The Circular City

What is a Circular City?

A circular city is a re-imagined architectural and self-sustaining societal structure. It primarily focuses on maintaining the world’s natural resources to ensure a higher standard of living for all human inhabitants. Instead of our current linear system, in which materials are often thrown away after use, circular systems put raw materials back into use to maintain their value, cut down waste, conserve resources, and improve efficiency.

In order to provide equal access to these resources, circular cities become resource-based economies, meaning the planet’s resources are common heritage to all—no one privately owns the natural resources, but every human deserves equal access to them without the expectation of monetary payment. Housing, transportation, renewable energy sources, clean water, and organic food would be available to all in this community-based living structure.

Circular cities propose a circular city plan divided into radial sectors and circular belts, which creates about 8 different sections inching closer to the central dome. Essentially, one sector is repeated 8 times until a circle forms. This design approach would use far less energy and resources in the construction process. The circular design itself is also far more efficient in terms of travel because, unlike linear cities, people will be able to easily return to their destinations without taking the same route back. In addition, the uniform geometric design allows for city plans to be easily scaled up or down, depending on the population size.

The goal of a circular city design is to achieve an efficient, long-lasting harmony between man and nature. The geometric arrangement incorporates lush greenery and vibrant landscapes, such as parks and gardens, to balance out the residential districts and city buildings and to avoid our modern “concrete jungles.” Circular cities aim to coexist with nature and maintain natural ecosystems.

The grid structure allows each belt to have a specific function, such as a recreational or residential belt. However, each belt is also multi-functional in order to harmonize with nature. For example, a recreational belt may have exercise facilities or a concert arena, but it also intentionally preserves natural ecosystems, such as aquatic spaces or permaculture land.

The end goal of a circular city design is to create a self-reliant, resilient city that elevates the quality of living for all. As a result, these cities would not have to rely on a constant influx of resources from other regions. Their sustainable agricultural practices and renewable energy resources would completely sustain the community.

What do you think of the circular structure? Do you think a change in cities is needed for the future?


Exploring a Circular City Layout

  • The typical circular city design generally features a central dome, in which core educational buildings, research centers, health or childcare facilities, or communications and networking systems could be equally accessed by all in the heart of the city.
  • The next circular band around the central dome is a recreational belt meant to provide the community engaging activities, such as art, theater, concerns, exercise facilities, dining, and other amenities and forms of entertainment.
  • The next circular band is divided into 8 different residential districts. The flexibility in the circular city’s residential designs allows each person to adapt the architecture to their personal preferences and needs. In addition, each home enjoys flourishing landscapes and gardens, which allows some separation and relative isolation. Residential districts could also feature skyscrapers with apartments, in-house restaurants, educational facilities, and more. Given the nature of the geometric design, everyone living in the residential district will be in equal proximity to the recreational belt and central dome.
  • The next circular belt features agricultural spaces to grow organic produce without the need for pesticides or chemicals. It also provides space for indoor hydroponic farming, aeroponic farming, and aquaponic farming facilities. These alternative farming methods involve growing plants without the need for soil.
  • A circular waterway surrounds the above-mentioned agricultural belt, which can be conveniently used for irrigation and filtration.
  • The outermost belt of the circular city can be used for exploratory recreational activities like hiking, biking, golfing, and more. In addition, sections can be set aside for renewable energy sources, such as solar power, wind generators, geothermal energy, and more.

What do you think of this layout? Is there anything you would add, remove, or rearrange? Why?



In circular cities, flexible architecture and design would allow homes to be customized according to individual preferences and be built into any type of landscape. Just like the circular city itself is meant to be a self-sustaining structure, so too are the homes meant to be reliant on their own energy. Each home would be equipped with some form of renewable energy, whether it be thermal generators or heat concentrators, to completely operate their entire household.

Individual homes would be prefabricated or manufactured in an automated facility and then assembled on-site, which would reduce waste. These modular homes would not only be easy and efficient to mass produce, but with ceramic coatings and reinforced concrete, they would also be resistant to fires, relatively maintenance-free, and able to survive harsh weather conditions like hurricanes, tornadoes, and other strong storms.

What do you think of these self-contained homes?


How Would New Technology Affect Work, Recreation, and Living?

Circular cities and technology will go hand-in-hand. It depends upon advanced technology and science to restructure the current social system to create a higher standard of living for everyone. By using automated technology humanely and responsibly, circular cities would decrease work hours and increase time for recreation and intentional living. For example, fully-robotic factories, automated agriculture and harvesting systems, and even automated building systems would dramatically cut down the need for a large workforce. As a result, each individual would have ample time to discover and experience the world in a fulfilling way.

What kinds of technology do you think circular cities would need to achieve this?


Energy and Agriculture

In circular cities, agricultural practices and energy sources both have the potential to cut down on industrial waste and emissions, better preserve natural resources, become more self-reliant and sustainable overall. Clean, renewable energy sources like solar, wind, and geothermal power are often suggested for circular cities. As a result, energy reserves could be built up and responsibly used.

Alternative indoor farming methods like hydroponics, aeroponics, and aquponics skip soil entirely. Instead, farmers replace soil with nutrient-rich water to support the roots of the plants. But why grow without soil in the first place? This agricultural practice may seem strange, but it is quite revolutionary because: it allows people to farm anywhere in the world, to farm anytime of the year without risks of inclement weather, and to harvest higher yields using far fewer resources. This type of farming is specifically advantageous in a circular city system because it solves the problem of having to import food from different areas. As a result, cities can have hyper-local food systems.

What do you think of these solutions?  


What Problems Could Circular Cities Solve?

It is now considered to be far more efficient to build completely new cities rather than updating them to fix their current problems. The major issues cities today face include: poverty, hunger, homelessness, inadequate air and water, environmental concerns, corruption, crime, housing shortages, crowding, a shortage of employment, clogged infrastructure, imbalanced access to public services and education, and many more. Circular cities have the potential to bring enormous economic, social, and environmental changes in all of these areas.

Circular cities are meant to be semi-natural urban community-living spaces that are safer and healthier for all individuals. They are strategically designed to reduce energy consumption, maintain equal access to natural resources, and create a more livable environment for everyone.

Cities are hubs for innovation and change, after all. Do you see circular cities in our future? What do you think of them?